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COMPACT FLASH CARD INTERFACE

                                    ;***************************************************************************
                                    ;
                                    ; File Name		:'cf.asm"
                                    ; Title			:Compact Flash Common Memory Mode Driver
                                    ; Date			:2004.05.12.
                                    ; Version		:1.0.0
                                    ; Support telephone	:+36-70-333-4034,  old: +36-30-9541-658 VFX
                                    ; Support fax		:
                                    ; Support Email		:info@vfx.hu
                                    ; Target MCU		:AVR
                                    ;
                                    ;***************************************************************************
                                    ;	D E S C R I P T I O N
                                    ;
                                    ; Memory Interface to a compact flash card.
                                    ; Compact flash card is used in memory mapped mode.
                                    ; Registers are located at ADR_CFC in external RAM space of Mega128
                                    ;
                                    ;
                                    ;***************************************************************************
                                    ;	M O D I F I C A T I O N   H I S T O R Y
                                    ;
                                    ;
                                    ;       rev.      date      who  	why
                                    ;	----	----------  ---		------------------------------------
                                    ;	0.01	2004.05.12  VFX		Creation
                                    ;
                                    ;***************************************************************************
                                    ;Hardware
                                    ;***************************************************************************
                                    ;*
                                    ;*	SYSCLK: f=16.000 MHz (T= 62.5 ns)
                                    ;*
                                    ;***************************************************************************
                                    ;
                                    ;
                                    ;**************************************************************************
                                    ;* Hardware Def.
                                    ;
                                    ; CompactFlash hardware definitions
                                    ; Table 34: Memory Mapped Decoding
                                    ; -REG A10 A9-A4 A3 A2 A1 A0 Offset -OE=0              -WE=0           Notes
                                    ;   1   0    X    0  0  0  0   0    Even RD Data       Even WR Data     1, 2
                                    ;   1   0    X    0  0  0  1   1    Error              Features         1, 2
                                    ;   1   0    X    0  0  1  0   2    Sector Count       Sector Count
                                    ;   1   0    X    0  0  1  1   3    Sector No.         Sector No.
                                    ;   1   0    X    0  1  0  0   4    Cylinder Low       Cylinder Low
                                    ;   1   0    X    0  1  0  1   5    Cylinder High      Cylinder High
                                    ;   1   0    X    0  1  1  0   6    Select Card/Head   Select Card/Head
                                    ;   1   0    X    0  1  1  1   7    Status             Command
                                    ;   1   0    X    1  0  0  0   8    Dup. Even RD Data  Dup. Even WR Data   2
                                    ;   1   0    X    1  0  0  1   9    Dup. Odd RD Data   Dup. Odd WR Data    2
                                    ;   1   0    X    1  1  0  1   D    Dup. Error Dup.    Features            2
                                    ;   1   0    X    1  1  1  0   E    Alt Status         Device Ctl
                                    ;   1   0    X    1  1  1  1   F    Drive Address      Reserved
                                    ;   1   1    X    X  X  X  0   8    Even RD Data       Even WR Data        3
                                    ;   1   1    X    X  X  X  1   9    Odd RD Data        Odd WR Data         3
                                    
                                    ;Note: 1) Register 0 is accessed with -CE1 low and -CE2 low as a word register
                                    ;on the combined Odd Data Bus and Even Data Bus (D15-D0). This register may
                                    ;also be accessed by a pair of byte accesses to the offset 0 with -CE1 low and
                                    ;-CE2 high. Note that the address space of this word register overlaps
                                    ;the address space of the Error and Feature byte-wide registers that lie at
                                    ;offset 1. When accessed twice as byte register with -CE1 low, the first byte
                                    ;to be accessed is the even byte of the word and the second byte accessed
                                    ;is the odd byte of the equivalent word access.
                                    ;A byte access to address 0 with -CE1 high and -CE2 low accesses the error
                                    ;(read) or feature (write) register.
                                    
                                    ;2) Registers at offset 8, 9 and D are non-overlapping duplicates of the
                                    ;registers at offset 0 and 1. Register 8 is equivalent to register 0,
                                    ;while register 9 accesses the odd byte. Therefore, if the registers are byte
                                    ;accessed in the order 9 then 8 the data will be transferred odd byte then even
                                    ;byte. Repeated byte accesses to register 8 or 0 will access consecutive
                                    ;(even then odd) bytes from the data buffer. Repeated word accesses to register
                                    ;8, 9 or 0 will access consecutive words from the data buffer. Repeated byte
                                    ;accesses to register 9 are not supported. However, repeated alternating byte
                                    ;accesses to registers 8 then 9 will access consecutive (even then odd) bytes
                                    ;from the data buffer. Byte accesses to register 9 access only the odd byte of
                                    ;the data.
                                    
                                    ;3) Accesses to even addresses between 400h and 7FFh access register 8.
                                    ;Accesses to odd addresses between 400h and 7FFh access register 9. This
                                    ;1 Kbyte memory window to the data register is provided so that hosts can
                                    ;perform memory to memory block moves to the data register when the register
                                    ;lies in memory space.
                                    ;
                                    
                                    ;
                                    ;CF register addresses
                                    ;
                                    .equ	CF_EvenData	= ADR_CFC+0x08	;Dupl. DAta
                                    .equ	CF_OddData	= ADR_CFC+0x09	;Dupl. Data
                                    .equ	CF_Error	= ADR_CFC+0x0D	;Dupl. Errors / Features
                                    .equ	CF_SECCOUNT	= ADR_CFC+0x02	;Sectorcount
                                    .equ	CF_LBA0		= ADR_CFC+0x03	;LBA 0-7
                                    .equ	CF_LBA1		= ADR_CFC+0x04	;LBA 8-15
                                    .equ	CF_LBA2		= ADR_CFC+0x05	;LBA 16-23
                                    .equ	CF_LBA3		= ADR_CFC+0x06	;LBA 24-27
                                    .equ	CF_STACOM	= ADR_CFC+0x07	;Status / Command
                                    .equ	CF_DecCont	= ADR_CFC+0x0E	;
                                    
                                    
                                    
                                    ;Class 1
                                    ;Upon receipt of a Class 1 command, the CompactFlash Storage Card sets BSY
                                    ;within 400 nsec.
                                    
                                    
                                    ;Class 2
                                    ;Upon receipt of a Class 2 command, the CompactFlash Storage Card sets BSY
                                    ;within 400 nsec, sets up the sector buffer for a write operation, sets DRQ
                                    ;within 700 usec, and clears BSY within 400 nsec of setting DRQ.
                                    
                                    ;Class 3
                                    ;Upon receipt of a Class 3 command, the CompactFlash Storage Card sets BSY
                                    ;within 400 nsec, sets up the sector buffer for a write operation, sets DRQ
                                    ;within 20 msec (assuming no re-assignments), and clears BSY within 400 nsec
                                    ;of setting DRQ.
                                    
                                    
                                    ;Table 37: CF-ATA Command Set
                                    ;
                                    ;Class COMMAND Code FR SC SN CY DH LBA
                                    ;1 Check Power Mode E5h or 98h - - - - D -
                                    ;1 Execute Drive Diagnostic 90h - - - - D -
                                    ;1 Erase Sector(s) C0h - Y Y Y Y Y
                                    ;1 Flush Cache E7h - - - - D -
                                    ;2 Format Track 50h - Y - Y Y Y
                                    ;1 Identify Drive ECh - - - - D -
                                    ;1 Idle E3h or 97h - Y - - D -
                                    ;1 Idle Immediate E1h or 95h - - - - D -
                                    ;1 Initialize Drive Parameters 91h - Y - - Y -
                                    ;1 Key Management Structure Read B9 Feature 0-127 C C C C D C -
                                    ;1 Key Management Read Keying Material B9 Feature 80 C C C C D C -
                                    ;2 Key Management Change Key Management Value B9 Feature 81 C C C C D C -
                                    ;1 NOP 00h - - - - D -
                                    ;1 Read Buffer E4h - - - - D -
                                    ;1 Read Long Sector 22h or 23h - - Y Y Y Y
                                    ;1 Read Multiple C4h - Y Y Y Y Y
                                    ;1 Read Sector(s) 20h or 21h - Y Y Y Y Y
                                    ;1 Read Verify Sector(s) 40h or 41h - Y Y Y Y Y
                                    ;1 Recalibrate 1Xh - - - - D -
                                    ;1 Request Sense 03h - - - - D -
                                    ;1 Security Disable Password F6h - - - - D -
                                    ;1 Security Erase Prepare F3h - - - - D -
                                    ;1 Security Erase Unit F4h - - - - D -
                                    ;1 Security Freeze Lock F5h - - - - D -
                                    ;1 Security Set Password F1h - - - - D -
                                    ;1 Security Unlock F2h - - - - D -
                                    ;1 Seek 7Xh - - Y Y Y Y
                                    ;1 Set Features EFh Y - - - D -
                                    ;1 Set Multiple Mode C6h - Y - - D -
                                    ;1 Set Sleep Mode E6h or 99h - - - - D -
                                    ;1 Standby E2h or 96h - - - - D -
                                    ;1 Standby Immediate E0h or 94h - - - - D -
                                    ;1 Translate Sector 87h - Y Y Y Y Y
                                    ;1 Wear Level F5h - - - - Y -
                                    ;2 Write Buffer E8h - - - - D -
                                    ;2 Write Long Sector 32h or 33h - - Y Y Y Y
                                    ;3 Write Multiple C5h - Y Y Y Y Y
                                    ;3 Write Multiple w/o Erase CDh - Y Y Y Y Y
                                    ;2 Write Sector(s) 30h or 31h - Y Y Y Y Y
                                    ;2 Write Sector(s) w/o Erase 38h - Y Y Y Y Y
                                    ;3 Write Verify 3Ch - Y Y Y Y Y
                                    ;
                                    ;Definitions:
                                    ;FR = Features Register
                                    ;SC = Sector Count Register
                                    ;SN = Sector Number Register
                                    ;CY = Cylinder Registers
                                    ;DH = Card/Drive/Head Register
                                    ;LBA = Logical Block Address Mode Supported (see command descriptions for use).
                                    ;Y - The register contains a valid parameter for this command. For the Drive/Head Register Y
                                    ;means both the CompactFlash Storage Card and head parameters are used; D - only the
                                    ;CompactFlash Storage Card parameter is valid and not the head parameter; C - The register
                                    ;contains command specific data (see command descriptions for use).
                                    ;
                                    
                                    ;CF-ATA Command Set
                                    .equ	CF_CMD_READ_SEC	 = 0x20
                                    .equ	CF_CMD_WRITE_SEC = 0x30
                                    .equ	CF_CMD_IDENTIFY	 = 0xEC
                                    
                                    
                                    
                                    .equ	CFRDY	= 2		;bit 2 = 1 CF ready
                                    .equ	CFVS1	= 3		;bit 3 = 0 CF in slot
                                    
                                    
                                    
                                    ;***************************************************************************************
                                    ;***	Definition of the status register bits
                                    ;***
                                    ;***	Bit7															Bit0
                                    ;***	BSY		DRDY		DWF		DSC		DRQ		CORR		IDX		ERR
                                    ;***************************************************************************************
                                    .equ	CFC_STATUS_BSY	= 0x80		;Busy flag
                                    .equ	CFC_STATUS_DRDY	= 0x40		;Drive ready
                                    .equ	CFC_STATUS_DWF	= 0x20		;Drive write fault
                                    .equ	CFC_STATUS_DSC	= 0x10		;Drive seek complete
                                    .equ	CFC_STATUS_DRQ	= 0x08		;Data request
                                    .equ	CFC_STATUS_CORR	= 0x04		;Corrected data
                                    .equ	CFC_STATUS_IDX	= 0x02		;Index
                                    .equ	CFC_STATUS_ERR	= 0x01		;Error
                                    
                                    
                                    
                                    ;
                                    ;***************************************************************************
                                    ;**** VARIABLES
                                    .DSEG
                                    
                                    ;***************************************************************************
                                    .ESEG
                                    
                                    
                                    ;***************************************************************************
                                    ;**** CODE SEG
                                    ;***************************************************************************
                                    .CSEG
                                    
                                    
                                    
                                    ;********************************************************
                                    ;CFRdy
                                    ;
                                    ; Wait until CF not busy
                                    ;
                                    ; Out: c= 0 no error
                                    ;	  1 error
                                    ;
                                    ; Alt: R16,R17
                                    ;
                                    CFHWRdy:
                                    		lds	R16,ADR_CFST
                                    		bst	R16,CFVS1		;CF inserted?
                                    		brtc	CFHWRdy0
                                    		rjmp	CFDrvError
                                    CFHWRdy0:
                                    		lds	R16,ADR_CFST
                                    		bst	R16,CFRDY		;CF ready?
                                    		brtc	CFHWRdy
                                    		clc
                                    		ret
                                    
                                    ;********************************************************
                                    ;CFWaitDRQ
                                    ;
                                    ; Wait until Data will available
                                    ;
                                    ; Out: c= 0 no error
                                    ;	  1 error
                                    ;
                                    ; Alt: R16,R17
                                    ;
                                    CFWaitDRQ:
                                    		rcall	CFHWRdy
                                    		brcc	CFWaitDRQ00
                                    		ret
                                    CFWaitDRQ00:
                                    		lds	R16,CF_STACOM
                                    		bst	R16,0
                                    		brtc	CFWaitDRQ0
                                    CFWaitErr:
                                    		ldi	R16,low(0xFFF0)		;Error in last command
                                    		ldi	R17,high(0xFFF0)	;ide keresunk egy error kodot!!!
                                    		sec
                                    		ret
                                    
                                    CFWaitDRQ0:
                                    		andi	R16,0xF8
                                    		cpi	R16,0x58
                                    		brne	CFWaitDRQ
                                    		clc
                                    		ret
                                    
                                    
                                    ;********************************************************
                                    ;CFWaitReady
                                    ;
                                    ; Wait until CF will ready
                                    ;
                                    ; Out: c= 0 no error
                                    ;	  1 error
                                    ;
                                    ; Alt: R16,R17
                                    ;
                                    CFWaitReady:
                                    		rcall	CFHWRdy
                                    		brcc	CFWaitRdy0
                                    		ret
                                    CFWaitRdy0:
                                    		lds	R16,CF_STACOM
                                    		bst	R16,0
                                    		brts	CFWaitErr
                                    CFWaitReady01:
                                    		andi	R16,0xF0
                                    		cpi	R16,0x50
                                    		brne	CFWaitReady
                                    		clc
                                    		ret
                                    
                                    ;********************************************************
                                    ;CFReadSector
                                    ;
                                    ; In: R13:R12:R11:R10 - LBA sector number
                                    ;     Page: Y - Pointer to Data Buffer 	[512 byte]
                                    ;     Z - Phis. Drive Descriptor
                                    ;
                                    ; Out: c= 0 no error
                                    ;	  1 error
                                    ;
                                    CFReadSector:
                                    		ldd	R0,Z+MaxSector+0
                                    		ldd	R1,Z+MaxSector+1
                                    		ldd	R2,Z+MaxSector+2
                                    		ldd	R3,Z+MaxSector+3
                                    		cp	R10,R0
                                    		cpc	R11,R1
                                    		cpc	R12,R2
                                    		cpc	R13,R3
                                    		brcs	CFReadSec00
                                    
                                    		ldi	R16,low(ERROR_SECTOR_NOT_FOUND)	;Sector number too big
                                    		ldi	R17,high(ERROR_SECTOR_NOT_FOUND)
                                    		sec
                                    		ret
                                    CFReadSec00:
                                    		std	Z+CurrentSector+0,R10
                                    		std	Z+CurrentSector+1,R11
                                    		std	Z+CurrentSector+2,R12
                                    		std	Z+CurrentSector+3,R13
                                    
                                    		rcall	CFWaitReady
                                    		brcc	CFReadSec01
                                    		ret				;Error in last command
                                    CFReadSec01:
                                    		ldi	R16,1
                                    		sts	CF_SECCOUNT,R16
                                    		nop
                                    		sts	CF_LBA0,R10		;D7..D0
                                    		nop
                                    		sts	CF_LBA1,R11		;D15..D8
                                    		nop
                                    		sts	CF_LBA2,R12		;D23..D16
                                    		ldi	R16,0x0F
                                    		and	R16,R13
                                    		ori	R16,0xE0		;set LBA mode
                                    		sts	CF_LBA3,R16		;D27..D24 + LBA mode + Drive0
                                    
                                    		ldi	R16,CF_CMD_READ_SEC
                                    		sts	CF_STACOM,R16		;Set Read Sector Command
                                    
                                    		ldi	XL,0
                                    		ldi	XH,1			;if X==0 -> X=256 word;
                                    
                                    		movw	R0,YL			;save Y reg.
                                    
                                    		rcall	CFWaitDrq
                                    		brcc	CFReadSec02
                                    		ret				;Drive error
                                    CFReadSec02:
                                    		lds	R16,ADR_CFST
                                    		bst	R16,CFVS1		;CF inserted?
                                    		brts	CFDrvError
                                    		bst	R16,CFRDY		;CF ready?
                                    		brtc	CFReadSec02
                                    
                                    		lds	R16,CF_EvenData
                                    		st	Y+,R16
                                    		lds	R16,CF_OddData
                                    		st	Y+,R16
                                    		sbiw	XL,1
                                    		brne	CFReadSec02
                                    
                                    		movw	YL,R0			;restore Y reg.
                                    		clc
                                    		ret
                                    
                                    CFDrvError:
                                    		ldi	R16,low(ERROR_BAD_UNIT)
                                    		ldi	R17,high(ERROR_BAD_UNIT) ;Drive not present
                                    		sec
                                    		ret
                                    
                                    ;********************************************************
                                    ;CFWriteSector
                                    ;
                                    ; In: R13:R12:R11:R10 - LBA sector number
                                    ;     Page: Y - Pointer to Data Buffer 	[512 byte]
                                    ;     Z - Phis. Drive Descriptor
                                    ;
                                    ; Out: c= 0 no error
                                    ;	  1 error
                                    ;
                                    CFWriteSector:
                                    		ldd	R0,Z+MaxSector+0
                                    		ldd	R1,Z+MaxSector+1
                                    		ldd	R2,Z+MaxSector+2
                                    		ldd	R3,Z+MaxSector+3
                                    		cp	R10,R0
                                    		cpc	R11,R1
                                    		cpc	R12,R2
                                    		cpc	R13,R3
                                    		brcs	CFWriteSec00
                                    
                                    		ldi	R16,low(ERROR_SECTOR_NOT_FOUND)	;Sector number too big
                                    		ldi	R17,high(ERROR_SECTOR_NOT_FOUND)
                                    		sec
                                    		ret
                                    CFWriteSec00:
                                    		rcall	CFWaitReady
                                    		brcc	CFWriteSec01
                                    		ret				;Error in last command
                                    CFWriteSec01:
                                    		ldi	R16,1
                                    		sts	CF_SECCOUNT,R16
                                    		nop
                                    		sts	CF_LBA0,R10		;D7..D0
                                    		nop
                                    		sts	CF_LBA1,R11		;D15..D8
                                    		nop
                                    		sts	CF_LBA2,R12		;D23..D16
                                    		ldi	R16,0x0F
                                    		and	R16,R13
                                    		ori	R16,0xE0		;set LBA mode
                                    		sts	CF_LBA3,R16		;D27..D24 + LBA mode + Drive0
                                    		ldi	R16,CF_CMD_WRITE_SEC
                                    		sts	CF_STACOM,R16		;Write sector command
                                    
                                    		ldi	XL,0
                                    		ldi	XH,1			;if X==0 -> X=256 word;
                                    
                                    		movw	R0,YL
                                    
                                    		rcall	CFWaitDrq
                                    		brcc	CFWriteSec02
                                    		ret				;Drive error
                                    CFWriteSec02:
                                    		lds	R16,ADR_CFST
                                    		bst	R16,CFVS1		;CF inserted?
                                    		brts	CFDrvError
                                    		bst	R16,CFRDY		;CF ready?
                                    		brtc	CFWriteSec02
                                    
                                    		ld	R16,Y+
                                    		sts	CF_EvenData,R16
                                    		ld	R16,Y+
                                    		sts	CF_OddData,R16
                                    		sbiw	XL,1       
                                    		brne	CFWriteSec02
                                    
                                    		movw	YL,R0
                                    		clc
                                    		ret
                                    
                                    
                                    
                                    ;********************************************************
                                    ;CFResetDevice
                                    ;
                                    ; In: - 
                                    ;
                                    ; Out: c= 0 no error
                                    ;	  1 error R17:R16 error code
                                    ;
                                    CFResetDevice:
                                    		ldi	R16,0b00000100		;Force SW reset
                                    		sts	ADR_CFC+0x0E,R16	;Device Control Register
                                    		ldi	R16,64
                                    CFRes0:		dec	R17
                                    		brne	CFRes0
                                    		dec	R16
                                    		brne	CFRes0
                                    		clr	R16
                                    		sts	ADR_CFC+0x0E,R16	;Device Control Register
                                    		rcall	CFWaitReady
                                    		ret
                                    
                                    
                                    
                                    ;********************************************************
                                    ;CFIdentify
                                    ;
                                    ; In: Z - Phis. Drive Descriptor
                                    ;     Page: Y - Pointer to temporary Data Buffer [512 byte]
                                    ;
                                    ; Out: c= 0 no error
                                    ;	  1 error
                                    ;
                                    CFIdentify:
                                    		rcall	CFWaitReady
                                    		brcc	CFIdent01
                                    		ret				;Error code in R17:R16
                                    CFIdent01:
                                    		ldi	R16,1
                                    		sts	CF_SECCOUNT,R16
                                    		clr	R16
                                    		sts	CF_LBA0,R16
                                    		nop
                                    		sts	CF_LBA1,R16
                                    		nop
                                    		sts	CF_LBA2,R16
                                    		ldi	R16,0xE0
                                    		sts	CF_LBA3,R16
                                    		ldi	R16,CF_CMD_IDENTIFY
                                    		sts	CF_STACOM,R16
                                    
                                    		ldi	XL,0			;read fixed 256 word 
                                    		ldi	XH,1
                                    		movw	R0,YL
                                    
                                    		call	CFWaitDRQ
                                    		brcc	CFIdent02
                                    		ret				;Drive error
                                    CFIdent02:
                                    		lds	R16,CF_EvenData
                                    		st	Y+,R16
                                    		nop
                                    		lds	R16,CF_OddData
                                    		st	Y+,R16
                                    		sbiw	XL,1
                                    		brne	CFIdent02
                                    	
                                    		movw	YL,R0
                                    
                                    		clr	R0
                                    		ldd	R16,Y+0			;CF IDs: 848Ah
                                    		cpi	R16,0x8A
                                    		brne	CFIDs0
                                    		ldd	R16,Y+1
                                    		cpi	R16,0x84
                                    		brne	 CFIDs0
                                    		inc	R0
                                    CFIDs0:
                                    		std	Z+MediaFlag,R0		;Store CF ID
                                    
                                    		ldi	R16,RemovableMedia
                                             	std	Z+MediaType,R16
                                    
                                    		ldi	R16,0x80
                                    		std	Z+DiskNumber,R16	;First HDD => HDD0
                                    
                                    	
                                    		ldd	R16,Y+2			;Default tracks/cylinders
                                    		ldd	R17,Y+3
                                     		std	Z+Cylinders+0,R16
                                     		std	Z+Cylinders+1,R17
                                    
                                                    ldd	R16,Y+6			;Default Heads
                                    		std	Z+Heads,R16
                                    
                                            	ldd	R16,Y+12		;default Sectors per track
                                    		std	Z+SectorsPerTrack,R16
                                    
                                    		ldd	R16,Y+14		;Number of Sectors per Card
                                    		std	Z+MaxSector+2,R16	;MSW -LSW !!!
                                    		ldd	R16,Y+15
                                    		std	Z+MaxSector+3,R16
                                    		ldd	R16,Y+16
                                    		std	Z+MaxSector+0,R16
                                    		ldd	R16,Y+17
                                    		std	Z+MaxSector+1,R16
                                    
                                    		clc
                                    		ret
                                    
                                    
                                    
                                    
                                 

Programming the AVR Microcontrollers in Assember Machine Language

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Atmel AVR From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Avr) Jump to: navigation, search The AVRs are a family of RISC microcontrollers from Atmel. Their internal architecture was conceived by two students: Alf-Egil Bogen and Vegard Wollan, at the Norwegian Institute of Technology (NTH] and further developed at Atmel Norway, a subsidiary founded by the two architects. Atmel recently released the Atmel AVR32 line of microcontrollers. These are 32-bit RISC devices featuring SIMD and DSP instructions, along with many additional features for audio and video processing, intended to compete with ARM based processors. Note that the use of "AVR" in this article refers to the 8-bit RISC line of Atmel AVR Microcontrollers. The acronym AVR has been reported to stand for Advanced Virtual RISC. It's also rumoured to stand for the company's founders: Alf and Vegard, who are evasive when questioned about it. Contents [hide] 1 Device Overview 1.1 Program Memory 1.2 Data Memory and Registers 1.3 EEPROM 1.4 Program Execution 1.5 Speed 2 Development 3 Features 4 Footnotes 5 See also 6 External Links 6.1 Atmel Official Links 6.2 AVR Forums & Discussion Groups 6.3 Machine Language Development 6.4 C Language Development 6.5 BASIC & Other AVR Languages 6.6 AVR Butterfly Specific 6.7 Other AVR Links [edit] Device Overview The AVR is a Harvard architecture machine with programs and data stored and addressed separately. Flash, EEPROM, and SRAM are all integrated onto a single die, removing the need for external memory (though still available on some devices). [edit] Program Memory Program instructions are stored in semi-permanent Flash memory. Each instruction for the AVR line is either 16 or 32 bits in length. The Flash memory is addressed using 16 bit word sizes. The size of the program memory is indicated in the naming of the device itself. For instance, the ATmega64x line has 64Kbytes of Flash. Almost all AVR devices are self-programmable. [edit] Data Memory and Registers The data address space consists of the register file, I/O registers, and SRAM. The AVRs have thirty-two single-byte registers and are classified as 8-bit RISC devices. The working registers are mapped in as the first thirty-two memory spaces (000016-001F16) followed by the 64 I/O registers (002016-005F16). The actual usable RAM starts after both these sections (address 006016). (Note that the I/O register space may be larger on some more extensive devices, in which case memory mapped I/O registers will occupy a portion of the SRAM.) Even though there are separate addressing schemes and optimized opcodes for register file and I/O register access, all can still be addressed and manipulated as if they were in SRAM. [edit] EEPROM Almost all devices have on-die EEPROM. This is most often used for long-term parameter storage to be retrieved even after cycling the power of the device. [edit] Program Execution Atmel's AVRs have a single level pipeline design. The next machine instruction is fetched as the current one is executing. Most instructions take just one or two clock cycles, making AVRs relatively fast among the eight-bit microcontrollers. The AVR family of processors were designed for the efficient execution of compiled C code. The AVR instruction set is more orthogonal than most eight-bit microcontrollers, however, it is not completely regular: Pointer registers X, Y, and Z have addressing capabilities that are different from each other. Register locations R0 to R15 have different addressing capabilities than register locations R16 to R31. I/O ports 0 to 31 have different addressing capabilities than I/O ports 32 to 63. CLR affects flags, while SER does not, even though they are complementary instructions. CLR set all bits to zero and SER sets them to one. (Note though, that neither CLR nor SER are native instructions. Instead CLR is syntactic sugar for [produces the same machine code as] EOR R,R while SER is syntactic sugar for LDI R,$FF. Math operations such as EOR modify flags while moves/loads/stores/branches such as LDI do not.) [edit] Speed The AVR line can normally support clock speeds from 0-16MHz, with some devices reaching 20MHz. Lower powered operation usually requires a reduced clock speed. All AVRs feature an on-chip oscillator, removing the need for external clocks or resonator circuitry. Because many operations on the AVR are single cycle, the AVR can achieve up to 1MIPS per MHz. [edit] Development AVRs have a large following due to the free and inexpensive development tools available, including reasonably priced development boards and free development software. The AVRs are marketed under various names that share the same basic core but with different peripheral and memory combinations. Some models (notably, the ATmega range) have additional instructions to make arithmetic faster. Compatibility amongst chips is fairly good. See external links for sites relating to AVR development. [edit] Features Current AVRs offer a wide range of features: RISC Core Running Many Single Cycle Instructions Multifunction, Bi-directional I/O Ports with Internal, Configurable Pull-up Resistors Multiple Internal Oscillators Internal, Self-Programmable Instruction Flash Memory up to 256K In-System Programmable using ICSP, JTAG, or High Voltage methods Optional Boot Code Section with Independent Lock Bits for Protection Internal Data EEPROM up to 4KB Internal SRAM up to 8K 8-Bit and 16-Bit Timers PWM Channels & dead time generator Lighting (PWM Specific) Controller models Dedicated IC Compatible Two-Wire Interface (TWI) Synchronous/Asynchronous Serial Peripherals (UART/USART) (As used with RS-232,RS-485, and more) Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) CAN Controller Support USB Controller Support Proper High-speed hardware & Hub controller with embedded AVR. Also freely available low-speed (HID) software emulation Ethernet Controller Support Universal Serial Interface (USI) for Two or Three-Wire Synchronous Data Transfer Analog Comparators LCD Controller Support 10-Bit A/D Converters, with multiplex of up to 16 channels Brownout Detection Watchdog Timer (WDT) Low-voltage Devices Operating Down to 1.8v Multiple Power-Saving Sleep Modes picoPower Devices Atmel AVR assembler programming language Atmel AVR machine programming language Atmel AVR From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Avr) Jump to: navigation, search The AVRs are a family of RISC microcontrollers from Atmel. Their internal architecture was conceived by two students: Alf-Egil Bogen and Vegard Wollan, at the Norwegian Institute of Technology (NTH] and further developed at Atmel Norway, a subsidiary founded by the two architects. Atmel recently released the Atmel AVR32 line of microcontrollers. These are 32-bit RISC devices featuring SIMD and DSP instructions, along with many additional features for audio and video processing, intended to compete with ARM based processors. Note that the use of "AVR" in this article refers to the 8-bit RISC line of Atmel AVR Microcontrollers. The acronym AVR has been reported to stand for Advanced Virtual RISC. It's also rumoured to stand for the company's founders: Alf and Vegard, who are evasive when questioned about it. Contents [hide] 1 Device Overview 1.1 Program Memory 1.2 Data Memory and Registers 1.3 EEPROM 1.4 Program Execution 1.5 Speed 2 Development 3 Features 4 Footnotes 5 See also 6 External Links 6.1 Atmel Official Links 6.2 AVR Forums & Discussion Groups 6.3 Machine Language Development 6.4 C Language Development 6.5 BASIC & Other AVR Languages 6.6 AVR Butterfly Specific 6.7 Other AVR Links [edit] Device Overview The AVR is a Harvard architecture machine with programs and data stored and addressed separately. Flash, EEPROM, and SRAM are all integrated onto a single die, removing the need for external memory (though still available on some devices). [edit] Program Memory Program instructions are stored in semi-permanent Flash memory. Each instruction for the AVR line is either 16 or 32 bits in length. The Flash memory is addressed using 16 bit word sizes. The size of the program memory is indicated in the naming of the device itself. For instance, the ATmega64x line has 64Kbytes of Flash. Almost all AVR devices are self-programmable. [edit] Data Memory and Registers The data address space consists of the register file, I/O registers, and SRAM. The AVRs have thirty-two single-byte registers and are classified as 8-bit RISC devices. The working registers are mapped in as the first thirty-two memory spaces (000016-001F16) followed by the 64 I/O registers (002016-005F16). The actual usable RAM starts after both these sections (address 006016). (Note that the I/O register space may be larger on some more extensive devices, in which case memory mapped I/O registers will occupy a portion of the SRAM.) Even though there are separate addressing schemes and optimized opcodes for register file and I/O register access, all can still be addressed and manipulated as if they were in SRAM. [edit] EEPROM Almost all devices have on-die EEPROM. This is most often used for long-term parameter storage to be retrieved even after cycling the power of the device. [edit] Program Execution Atmel's AVRs have a single level pipeline design. The next machine instruction is fetched as the current one is executing. Most instructions take just one or two clock cycles, making AVRs relatively fast among the eight-bit microcontrollers. The AVR family of processors were designed for the efficient execution of compiled C code. The AVR instruction set is more orthogonal than most eight-bit microcontrollers, however, it is not completely regular: Pointer registers X, Y, and Z have addressing capabilities that are different from each other. Register locations R0 to R15 have different addressing capabilities than register locations R16 to R31. I/O ports 0 to 31 have different addressing capabilities than I/O ports 32 to 63. CLR affects flags, while SER does not, even though they are complementary instructions. CLR set all bits to zero and SER sets them to one. (Note though, that neither CLR nor SER are native instructions. Instead CLR is syntactic sugar for [produces the same machine code as] EOR R,R while SER is syntactic sugar for LDI R,$FF. Math operations such as EOR modify flags while moves/loads/stores/branches such as LDI do not.) [edit] Speed The AVR line can normally support clock speeds from 0-16MHz, with some devices reaching 20MHz. Lower powered operation usually requires a reduced clock speed. All AVRs feature an on-chip oscillator, removing the need for external clocks or resonator circuitry. Because many operations on the AVR are single cycle, the AVR can achieve up to 1MIPS per MHz. [edit] Development AVRs have a large following due to the free and inexpensive development tools available, including reasonably priced development boards and free development software. The AVRs are marketed under various names that share the same basic core but with different peripheral and memory combinations. Some models (notably, the ATmega range) have additional instructions to make arithmetic faster. Compatibility amongst chips is fairly good. See external links for sites relating to AVR development. [edit] Features Current AVRs offer a wide range of features: RISC Core Running Many Single Cycle Instructions Multifunction, Bi-directional I/O Ports with Internal, Configurable Pull-up Resistors Multiple Internal Oscillators Internal, Self-Programmable Instruction Flash Memory up to 256K In-System Programmable using ICSP, JTAG, or High Voltage methods Optional Boot Code Section with Independent Lock Bits for Protection Internal Data EEPROM up to 4KB Internal SRAM up to 8K 8-Bit and 16-Bit Timers PWM Channels & dead time generator Lighting (PWM Specific) Controller models Dedicated IC Compatible Two-Wire Interface (TWI) Synchronous/Asynchronous Serial Peripherals (UART/USART) (As used with RS-232,RS-485, and more) Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) CAN Controller Support USB Controller Support Proper High-speed hardware & Hub controller with embedded AVR. Also freely available low-speed (HID) software emulation Ethernet Controller Support Universal Serial Interface (USI) for Two or Three-Wire Synchronous Data Transfer Analog Comparators LCD Controller Support 10-Bit A/D Converters, with multiplex of up to 16 channels Brownout Detection Watchdog Timer (WDT) Low-voltage Devices Operating Down to 1.8v Multiple Power-Saving Sleep Modes picoPower Devices Atmel AVR assembler programming language Atmel AVR machine programming language Atmel AVR From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Avr) Jump to: navigation, search The AVRs are a family of RISC microcontrollers from Atmel. Their internal architecture was conceived by two students: Alf-Egil Bogen and Vegard Wollan, at the Norwegian Institute of Technology (NTH] and further developed at Atmel Norway, a subsidiary founded by the two architects. Atmel recently released the Atmel AVR32 line of microcontrollers. These are 32-bit RISC devices featuring SIMD and DSP instructions, along with many additional features for audio and video processing, intended to compete with ARM based processors. Note that the use of "AVR" in this article refers to the 8-bit RISC line of Atmel AVR Microcontrollers. The acronym AVR has been reported to stand for Advanced Virtual RISC. It's also rumoured to stand for the company's founders: Alf and Vegard, who are evasive when questioned about it. Contents [hide] 1 Device Overview 1.1 Program Memory 1.2 Data Memory and Registers 1.3 EEPROM 1.4 Program Execution 1.5 Speed 2 Development 3 Features 4 Footnotes 5 See also 6 External Links 6.1 Atmel Official Links 6.2 AVR Forums & Discussion Groups 6.3 Machine Language Development 6.4 C Language Development 6.5 BASIC & Other AVR Languages 6.6 AVR Butterfly Specific 6.7 Other AVR Links [edit] Device Overview The AVR is a Harvard architecture machine with programs and data stored and addressed separately. Flash, EEPROM, and SRAM are all integrated onto a single die, removing the need for external memory (though still available on some devices). [edit] Program Memory Program instructions are stored in semi-permanent Flash memory. Each instruction for the AVR line is either 16 or 32 bits in length. The Flash memory is addressed using 16 bit word sizes. The size of the program memory is indicated in the naming of the device itself. For instance, the ATmega64x line has 64Kbytes of Flash. Almost all AVR devices are self-programmable. [edit] Data Memory and Registers The data address space consists of the register file, I/O registers, and SRAM. The AVRs have thirty-two single-byte registers and are classified as 8-bit RISC devices. The working registers are mapped in as the first thirty-two memory spaces (000016-001F16) followed by the 64 I/O registers (002016-005F16). The actual usable RAM starts after both these sections (address 006016). (Note that the I/O register space may be larger on some more extensive devices, in which case memory mapped I/O registers will occupy a portion of the SRAM.) Even though there are separate addressing schemes and optimized opcodes for register file and I/O register access, all can still be addressed and manipulated as if they were in SRAM. [edit] EEPROM Almost all devices have on-die EEPROM. This is most often used for long-term parameter storage to be retrieved even after cycling the power of the device. [edit] Program Execution Atmel's AVRs have a single level pipeline design. The next machine instruction is fetched as the current one is executing. Most instructions take just one or two clock cycles, making AVRs relatively fast among the eight-bit microcontrollers. The AVR family of processors were designed for the efficient execution of compiled C code. The AVR instruction set is more orthogonal than most eight-bit microcontrollers, however, it is not completely regular: Pointer registers X, Y, and Z have addressing capabilities that are different from each other. Register locations R0 to R15 have different addressing capabilities than register locations R16 to R31. I/O ports 0 to 31 have different addressing capabilities than I/O ports 32 to 63. CLR affects flags, while SER does not, even though they are complementary instructions. CLR set all bits to zero and SER sets them to one. (Note though, that neither CLR nor SER are native instructions. Instead CLR is syntactic sugar for [produces the same machine code as] EOR R,R while SER is syntactic sugar for LDI R,$FF. Math operations such as EOR modify flags while moves/loads/stores/branches such as LDI do not.) [edit] Speed The AVR line can normally support clock speeds from 0-16MHz, with some devices reaching 20MHz. Lower powered operation usually requires a reduced clock speed. All AVRs feature an on-chip oscillator, removing the need for external clocks or resonator circuitry. Because many operations on the AVR are single cycle, the AVR can achieve up to 1MIPS per MHz. [edit] Development AVRs have a large following due to the free and inexpensive development tools available, including reasonably priced development boards and free development software. The AVRs are marketed under various names that share the same basic core but with different peripheral and memory combinations. Some models (notably, the ATmega range) have additional instructions to make arithmetic faster. Compatibility amongst chips is fairly good. See external links for sites relating to AVR development. [edit] Features Current AVRs offer a wide range of features: RISC Core Running Many Single Cycle Instructions Multifunction, Bi-directional I/O Ports with Internal, Configurable Pull-up Resistors Multiple Internal Oscillators Internal, Self-Programmable Instruction Flash Memory up to 256K In-System Programmable using ICSP, JTAG, or High Voltage methods Optional Boot Code Section with Independent Lock Bits for Protection Internal Data EEPROM up to 4KB Internal SRAM up to 8K 8-Bit and 16-Bit Timers PWM Channels & dead time generator Lighting (PWM Specific) Controller models Dedicated IC Compatible Two-Wire Interface (TWI) Synchronous/Asynchronous Serial Peripherals (UART/USART) (As used with RS-232,RS-485, and more) Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) CAN Controller Support USB Controller Support Proper High-speed hardware & Hub controller with embedded AVR. Also freely available low-speed (HID) software emulation Ethernet Controller Support Universal Serial Interface (USI) for Two or Three-Wire Synchronous Data Transfer Analog Comparators LCD Controller Support 10-Bit A/D Converters, with multiplex of up to 16 channels Brownout Detection Watchdog Timer (WDT) Low-voltage Devices Operating Down to 1.8v Multiple Power-Saving Sleep Modes picoPower Devices Atmel AVR assembler programming language Atmel AVR machine programming language